Surveys indicate that a large number of children in India are sexually abused by known persons like relatives, neighbors, at school, and in residential facilities for vulnerable children.
The government has failed to prevent much of the child sexual abuse from taking place. Additionally, the existing systems of child protection and the stakeholders involved including police, lawyers, media, teachers, parents etc. are simply not doing enough to help victims or to ensure that perpetrators are punished.
Most cases go unreported. Poor awareness, social stigma, and negligence remain attached to the issue. There is a culture of silence around it.
A government appointed committee, in January, found that the government’s child protection schemes, “have clearly failed to achieve their avowed objective.” 
A statement released by Louis-Georges Arsenault, UNICEF Representative to India states, “It is alarming that too many of these cases are children. One in three rape victims is a child. More than 7,200 children including infants are raped every year; experts believe that many more cases go unreported. Given the stigma attached to rapes, especially when it comes to children, this is most likely only the tip of the iceberg.”
Child labour is the practice of having children engage in economic activity, on part- or full-time basis. The practice deprives children of their childhood, and is harmful to their physical and mental development. Poverty, lack of good schools and growth of informal economy are considered as the important causes of child labour in India. The 1998 national census of India estimated the total number of child labour, aged 4–15, to be at 12.6 million, out of a total child population of 253 million in 5–14 age group. A 2009–10 nationwide survey found child labour prevalence had reduced to 4.98 million children (or less than 2% of children in 5–14 age group). The 2011 national census of India found the total number of child labour, aged 5–14, to be at 4.35 million, and the total child population to be 259.64 million in that age group. The child labour problem is not unique to India; worldwide, about 217 million children work, many full-time.
Indian law specifically defines 64 industries as hazardous and it is a criminal offence to employ children in such hazardous industries. In 2001, an estimated 1% of all child workers, or about 120,000 children in India were in a hazardous job. Notably, Constitution of India prohibits child labour in hazardous industries (but not in non-hazardous industries) as a Fundamental Right under Article 24 UNICEF estimates that India with its larger population, has the highest number of labourers in the world under 14 years of age, while sub-saharan African countries have the highest percentage of children who are deployed as child labour. International Labour Organisationestimates that agriculture at 60 percent is the largest employer of child labour in the world while United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organisation estimates 70% of child labour is deployed in agriculture and related activities. Outside of agriculture, child labour is observed in almost all informal sectors of the Indian economy.
Companies including Gap Primark Monsanto] have been criticised for child labour in their products. The companies claim they have strict policies against selling products made by underage children, but there are many links in a supply chain making it difficult to oversee them all. In 2011, after three years of Primark's effort, BBC acknowledged that its award-winning investigative journalism report of Indian child labour use by Primark was a fake. The BBC apologised to Primark, to Indian suppliers and all its viewers.
India was attributed 23 goods the majority of which is produced by child labour in the manufacturing sector.>
Article 24 of India's constitution prohibits hazardous child labour. Additionally, various laws and the Indian Penal Code, such as the Juvenile Justice (care and protection) of Children Act-2000, and the Child Labour (Prohibition and Abolition) Act-1986 provide a basis in law to identify, prosecute and stop child labour in India.[
Gender based discrimination against female children is pervasive across the world. It is seen in all the strata of society and manifests in various forms As per the literature, female child has been treated inferior to male child and this is deeply engraved in the mind of the female child. Some argue that due to this inferior treatment the females fail to understand their rights. This is more predominant in India as well as other lesser developed countries. Sex selection of the before birth and neglect of the female child after birth, in childhood and, during the teenage years has outnumbered males to females in India harsh story about neglect and mistreatment of the female child in India. Women have a biological advantage over men for longevity and survival, yet there are more men than women The figures above support that gender discrimination of female child is a basic facility area. Though the demographic characteristics do not show much or in some cases, anti-female bias, there is always a woman who receives a small piece of the pie.
There are two main inequalities as pointed out by Amartya Sen: educational inequality and health inequality. These are the indicators of a woman’s status of welfare. In Indiairrespective of the caste, creed, religion and social status, the overall status of a woman is lower than men and therefore a male child is preferred over a female child. A male child is considered a blessing and his birth is celebrated as opposed to a female child where her birth is not celebrated and is considered more of
a burden. Therefore, education and health care of the female child in India is an important social indicator to measure equality between men and women. According to the 2001 Indian census, overall male-female ratio was 927 females per 1000 males. However, the 2011 Indian census shows that there are 914 females per 1000 males. During the last decade the number female children to male children in the youngest age group fell from 945 per 1000 males to 927 per 1000 males.
As per the data available there seems to be gender disparity depending on the location, as the Northern states(particularly Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh) seem to be more biased then the Southern states. The sharpest decline for the age group of zero to six years is observed in the Northern States particularly in Punjab (793 per 1000 females) and Haryana (820 per 1000 females). These new figures point out that the use of new technology contributes to the gender composition. Furthermore, the availability of and access to new technologies provides new ways for parent to achieve such goals of sex determination before birth. Due to the widespread use of this technology the Indian Government banned the sex determination before birth. In spite of these bans imposed by the Government, the law is not widely followe
A social development report presented in 2010 to the World Bank and UNDP, found that the time a female child and a male child spends on various activities is similar, with the exception of domestic work and social/resting time; a female child spends nearly three forth of an hour more on domestic work than a male child and therefore lesser hours of social activity/resting then boys. Despite progress in advancing gender equity from a legal standpoint, in practice many women and female children still lack opportunities, and support for the socio-economic advancement. Historically, the inclusion of young girls and women in education has helped challenge gender stereotypes and discrimination. This suggests that providing space for young girls to develop leadership skills, through education and healthy living is important. This can shape attitudes towards women's capabilities as leaders and decision makers especially in conventionally male domains and male dominated cultures. Because of the sex preference of male children in India, female children are deemed of resources in the areas of health and education.
A street child in India is someone "for whom the street (in the widest sense of the word, including unoccupied dwellings, wasteland, etc.) has become his or her habitual abode and/or source of livelihood; and who is inadequately protected, supervised, or directed by responsible adults It is estimated that more than 400,000 street children in India exist Mainly because of family conflict, they come to live on the streets and take on the full responsibilities of caring for themselves, including working to provide for and protecting themselves. Though street children do sometimes band together for greater security, they are often exploited by employers and the police
Their many vulnerabilities require specific legislation and attention from the government and other organisations to improve their condition.There is currently no official statistic of the number of street children in India.The primary reason for this is that it is difficult to obtain accurate data about them because of their floating character Street children usually have no proof of identification and move often. Of the 50,000 people in India that are officially reported as leaving home annually, 45 percent are under 16; this number, though, is likely very low Various studies have formulated estimates of certain cities. In the late 1980s, for instance, it was estimated that there were at least 100,000 street children in both Kolkata and Bombay. Overall, estimates for the total number of street children in India range from 400,000-800,000. There are some accurate estimates of one stream which adds to the number of the street children. There are cases of children running away from home. Majority of them use the trains to move. The number of such children who run away from home and land on railway platforms is about 80,000 a year. If these children are rescued from platforms very soon they land up, then they can be helped. Almost all of them can be reunited with families, as the experience goes. Presently he NGOs and Govt child lines, together are helping 10,000 children only of the 80,000 who arrive on platforms every year. Rest of the 70,000 keep moving on platforms or to the street and thus add to the number of the street children. That is the addition every year. Reference is available from book "railway Children" sage publication, by Lalitha iyer and Malcom harper. it is also available from web sites/reports of the NGOs " Railway Chidren, Sathi , Paul Hamlin Foundation" etc]